Epistemic status: I’ve thought about this topic in general for a while, and recently spent half an hour thinking about it in a somewhat focussed way.
Verification and transparency are two kinds of things you can do to or with a software system. Verification is where you use a program to prove whether or not a system of interest has a property of interest. Transparency is where you use tools to make it clear how the software system works. I claim that these are intimately related.
Apart from aesthetic cases, the purpose of transparency is to make the system transparent to some audience, so that members of that audience can learn about the system, and have that knowledge be intimately and necessarily entangled with the actual facts about the system. In other words, the purpose is to allow the users to verify certain properties of the system. As such, you might wonder why typical transparency methods look different than typical verification methods, which also have as a purpose allowing users to verify certain properties of a system.
Verification systems typically work by having a user specify a proposition to be verified, and then attempting to prove or disprove it. Transparency systems, on the other hand, provide an artefact that makes it easier to prove or disprove many properties of interest. It’s also the case that engagement with the ‘transparency artefact’ need not take the form of coming up with a proposition and then attempting to prove or disprove it: one may well instead interleave proving steps and specification steps, by looking at the artefact, having interesting lemmas come to mind, verifying those, which then inspire more lemmas, and so on.
Thinking about this made me realise that many sorts of things both serve verification and transparency purposes. Examples: